By Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang
This booklet is a whole reference grammar of Qiang, one of many minority languages of southwest China, spoken by means of approximately 70,000 Qiang and Tibetan humans in Aba Tibetan and Qiang self reliant Prefecture in northern Sichuan Province. It belongs to the Qiangic department of Tibeto-Burman (one of the 2 significant branches of Sino-Tibetan). The dialect offered within the e-book is the Northern Qiang style spoken in Ronghong Village, Yadu Township, Chibusu District, Mao County. This booklet, the 1st book-length description of the Qiang language in English, is the results of decades of labor at the language, and is as typologically finished as attainable. It contains not just the reference grammar, but additionally an ethnological assessment, a number of absolutely analyzed texts (mostly conventional stories), and an annotated thesaurus. The language is verb ultimate, agglutinative (prefixing and suffixing), and has either head-marking and based marking morphology. The phonology of Qiang is sort of complicated, with 39 consonants at seven issues of articulation, plus complicated consonant clusters, either in preliminary and ultimate place, in addition to vowel concord, vowel size differences, and a suite of retroflexed vowels. The grammar additionally
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Qiang: With Annotated Texts and Glossary (Mouton Grammar Library)
Consonants There are thirty-seven consonant phonemes found in the Qiang language, as listed in Table 2: 22 The phonological system Table 2. The Qiang consonants labial dental retroflex palatal velar uvular glottal (÷) voiceless stop voiceless aspirated stop p t k q ph th kh qh voiced stop b d g voiceless affricate voiceless aspirated affricate ts t® t˚ tsh t®h t˚h voiced affricate dz dÂ d s ® ˚ x ≈ h Â (%) () (©) Ù ¿ ≤10 ≥ voiceless fricative π(f) voiced fricative (v) z nasal m n voiceless lateral ¬ voiced lateral l approximant (w) (j) The items in parentheses in Table 2 are not phonemic: [%] is an allophone of /Â/ in initial position;  and [©] are voiced allophones of /˚/ and /x/, respectively, when they appear as the first consonant of clusters where the second consonant is voiced (see the discussion of clusters below).
4). Of these the pronouns and classifiers are subsets of the nouns. Qiang has both head marking and dependent marking. 2). There is no other agreement marking in Qiang. e. there are no syntactic pivots—see Van Valin & LaPolla 1997, Ch. 6 on this concept); the postpositions and person marking are 20 Introduction of the semantically based type discussed in Dixon 1994, Ch. 2. The use of the topic marker, and to some extent the non-actor person marking, are controlled by pragmatic factors. While the word order is generally verb-final, the order of noun phrases is determined by pragmatic factors.
There are two open lexical classes: nouns, those forms which can take definite marking and number marking, and verbs, those forms which can take the negative prefix and person marking (see Chapters 3 and 4 respectively). 3). 4). Of these the pronouns and classifiers are subsets of the nouns. Qiang has both head marking and dependent marking. 2). There is no other agreement marking in Qiang. e. there are no syntactic pivots—see Van Valin & LaPolla 1997, Ch. 6 on this concept); the postpositions and person marking are 20 Introduction of the semantically based type discussed in Dixon 1994, Ch.