Category Archives: Civilization & Culture

History of Civilization: 1815 To Present/Vol. C

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The present consensus is that prim ates appeared in the late Cretaceous between 85 mya and 65 mya, perhaps in China, but the earliest known primate fossils are from the late Paleocene around 55 mya and were found in Northern Africa .� The first primates were tree-dwellers that ate insects, nectar, seeds, and fruit. �Their eyes point forward (they rely on sight more than other senses, and have pronounced binocular vision), and most have opposable digits on their hands/feet, which are ideal for canopy-living.� Primates generally have larger brains than other mammals, which may have developed to rely more on eyesight and process the stimuli of binocular vision, and primates rely less on the olfactory sense.� That change assisted the increase in intelligence that characterizes primates.� Lemurs diverged early in the primate line and rafted over to the newly isolated Madagascar in the early Eocene .� Lemurs were Madagascar�s only primates until humans arrived about two thousand years ago (and the largest lemurs, which were gorilla-sized, immediately went extinct).� A rodent-like sister group to primates that lived in North America and Europe went extinct in the Paleocene, as did many early mammalian lines.� In general, Paleocene mammals had relatively small brains, and many from that epoch are called �primitive,� although it did not necessarily mean functionally primitive when compared to modern mammals.� However, evolutionary �progress� is a legitimate concept.� The energy efficiency of ray-finned fish is probably responsible for their success, and the change from �primitive� to �modern� was usually related to the energy issue.� Evolutionary progress is an unfashionable concept in some scientific circles, but it is a clear trend over life�s history on Earth, and can be quite obvious during the eon of complex life. [394] Paleo cene mammals were rarely apex predators.� Crocodilians survived the end-Cretaceous extinction and remained dominant in freshwater environments, although turtles lived in their golden age in the Paleocene Americas and might have even become apex predators for a brief time.� The largest snakes ever recorded ( 1, 2 ) lived in the Paleocene and could swallow crocodiles whole. �In addition to birds' being among South America�s apex predators, a huge flightless bird thrived in North America and Europe and survived to the mid-Eocene, although the evidence today strongly suggests that it was herbivorous .� Whe n the Great American Interchange began three mya, one of those flightless South American birds quickly became a successful North American predator.
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Istanbul: City of Majesty at the Crossroads of the World

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According to Houston the Cho'lan language, the precursor to the Maya, originated in the Guatemalan Highlands, ca 3000 BC. Britain had come under Roman control at about the same time as Judaea and Boudicca had led her rebellion in the 60s AD. In southern Chile, elderly Mapuche Indians still consult their female shamans ( machis ) when they have health problems. This group of Aborigines do not have words for left, right, front, or back.
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THE TRIANGLE OF TRADE

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Of the many pre-Columbian civilizations of the western hemisphere, the Maya civilization alone developed a writing system that provided a complete expression of their language, thus they are the only indigenous people of the Americas with a written history. By generating a thought-force that will invariably result in man enjoying peace of mind, that will instill in his heart the divine virtues of compassion, of service to his fellow-men, love of God, and of an intense desire to realize Him.
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The Burning of Rome

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Islamic literatures, moreover, exist over a vast geographical and linguistic area, for they were produced wherever the Muslims went, from their heartland in Arabia through the countries of the Middle East as far as Spain, North Africa, and, eventually, West Africa. His surprise was extreme when in the course of the first phrases exchanged with him he learned that this acquaintance had come to the station with the hope of finding him there. ``You haven't been seen for some time,'' he said. ``You were perhaps somewhere where the news from the world couldn't reach you?
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Ridpath's Universal History: An Account of the Origin,

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The transformation figure shows the human and feline characteristics brilliantly fused together. Thirdly there is the field of optics in which the Islamic sciences produced in Ibn al-Haytham (the Latin Alhzen) who lived in the 11th century, the greatest student of optics between Ptolemy and Witelo. It added that "for the common reader the difference between statements that ‘Norway is a pioneer in anti-Semitic and anti-Israeli acts' and ‘the most anti-Semitic nation in Europe' is not essential."
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A history of the reformation V.2

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He never takes those objects which are forbidden by the Sastras. Therefore each of you should have an ideal which is suited to your temperament, your capacity, and realize it with great enthusiasm and dynamic action. Bacon insisted that the scientist must pursue investigation freed from all prejudices and preconceptions. I shall throw myself on the bed for an hour or two, but I am sure I won't sleep.'' He accompanied us along the passage into the black-and-white hall, where the low gas flame glimmered forlornly.
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Debating Orientalization: Multidisciplinary Approaches to

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He carried about him a delicate perfume of scented soap. Even among wild beasts and bloody brutes you will “win friends.” Serve all; love all. First trip and therefore in the nature of a trial trip and I can't overcome a certain gnawing emotion, for it is a trip that mustn't fail. Then came the colonial period, which brought the Portuguese. I saw her already standing in the filtered sunshine of the closed shutters, with all the childlike horror and shame of that night vibrating afresh in the awakened body of the woman. ``Daylight,'' she whispered in an appalled voice. ``Don't look at me, George.
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The Regions of France: A Reference Guide to History and

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It would be utterly misleading to interpret the tension between Christians and the Roman Empire as a conflict or clash between the Church and the State. In consequence many Greek scholars fled to Italy and there introduced the artistic and philosophical riches of ancient Greece -- a heritance which was an immediate, if not sole, cause of the Renaissance. Most of these buildings no longer survive, but what has remained constitutes some of the finest monuments of Islamic architecture.
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Ntc's Dictionary of the United Kingdom (NTC Publishing Group

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Choosing this policy first will give you the honorific "Master" for male leaders and "Mistress" for female leaders. With love, intelligence and manipulative ability can rise to currently undreamed-of levels, and can begin approaching that heavenly future that can await most of us, if we want it. They are there now and they are going to have their lunch together at twelve o'clock.'' ``Why on earth didn't you tell me at first that the lady was Mrs. It reveals him as a master of concise, matterof-fact prose, as a keen observer of daily life, full of pragmatic common sense, and also as a good judge of poetry.
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THE GREAT FRONTIER

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We do not like to use the word “Jew” in my house, unless we are speaking historically, or about actual practitioners of Judaism. He was the greatest writer of medicine in the Middle Ages, and his Canon was required reading throughout Europe until the seventeenth century. He does not put his total strength in fit action; so he does not have the richest return of wisdom. F) A combination of all of the above with instability at the core to preserve its historically hegemonic role?
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